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听力语法  

2008-06-17 08:36:51|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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对话中的语法

1.             时态

1.             1进行时

六级听力考试中常出现的进行时态有过去进行时,现在进行时和现在完成进行时。

Example: It’s good to see you again. What are you doing these days? You’re still working at the same place, aren’t you?

Yes, I am. And I’m counting the days until retirement.

What can we learn about the man?

A.             He loves his present job.

B.             He is going to open a store.

C.             He is about to retire.

D.             He works in a repair shop.

Excuse me, sir. I’ve been waiting here for nearly 20 minutes long just to pay my telephone bill.

I’m sorry about that. But the computer is down, and everybody has had to wait this afternoon.

What’s the woman complaining about?

A.  The long wait.

B.  The broken down computer.

C.  The mistakes in her telephone bill.

D.  The bad telephone service.

Could you give me your office phone number or fax numbers so that we can contact each other more often?

But I’ve been trying to find a new job in another company. You see I’ve worked here for 3 years without a raise. That’s unfair to me.

What does the woman mean?

A.             She doesn’t have a fax machine.

B.             She may quit her present job soon.

C.             She is tired of her present job.

D.             Her phone number has changed.

 

I’m frustrated. We’re supposed to do our assignment on the computer, but I have difficulty getting access to the computers in the library.

I understand the way you feel. I’m looking forward to the day when I can afford to get my own.

What does the woman mean?

A.             She can’t finish her assignment, either.

B.             She can’t afford a computer right now.

C.             The man can use her computer.

D.             The man should buy a computer right away.

 

1.2 将来时

一般将来时will do表将来的事实,有时也用be going to结构表示打算,即将或可能。在对话中,will do 或 be going to do 经常用来谈论将来的计划,如旅行计划,工作计划等等。

Examples: good morning, I’m here to see Mr. Adison.

Mr. Adison went to Washington last Monday for a conference and he will be back on Thursday night. If you like, you may come again on Friday morning.

When will Mr. Adison return?

A.             On Thursday night.

B.             On Monday night.

C.             On Friday morning.

D.             On Thursday morning. 

 

2.             含关系从句的复合句

这中句子一般用来描述某个人,某个地方,某过程或者某物的用途, 也可用于下定义, 如:

The student who answered the question was John.

The room which served for studio was bare and dusty.

A nuclear family is one that consists of two parents ( mother and father ) and their children.

Example:

I’ve just got back from the holiday you arranged for me. But I must tell you the hotel was really awful. It was miles from the sea. The food was awful too. The bed-room was dirty.

Sorry about that. But it’s not really our fault. The contract does say that the hotel accommodation is not our responsibility.

Where is this conversation probably taking place?

A.             At the airport. B. In a travel agency. C. In a hotel.   D. At the reception desk.

 

I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for such a long time. I didn’t think the meeting would be so long.

That’s all right, Dr. Green. I’ve got the data you required and a few reference books which I think may be useful to your representation at the conference.

What’s purpose of the woman’s visit to the man?

A.             To remind him of the data he should take to the conference

B.             To see if he is ready for the coming conference

C.             To tell him something about the conference

D.             To help him prepare for the conference.

 

Mrs. Whiter, I need your advice, I want to buy a dress for my wife, can you tell me where I can get one at a reasonable price?

Sure, go to Richard’s. It has the latest styles and gives a 30% discount to husbands who shop alone.

What do we know about Richard’s stores?

A.             It gives a 30% discount to all customers.

B.             It is run by Mrs. Winter’s husband

C.             It hires Mrs. Winter as an adviser.

D.             It encourages husbands to shop on their own.

 

Lots of people enjoy dancing, do you?

Believe it or not, that is the last thing I’d ever want to do.

What does the man mean?

A.             He believes dancing is enjoyable.

B.             He definitely does not like dancing.

C.             He admires those who dance.

D.             He won’t dance until he has done his work.

 

3.             比较句式

比较句式的结构通常为: not…enough, not as…as…, as many…as…, more…than…, the best thing about… is…, would rather…than…, prefer.. to…

Examples:

I just got a statement from the bank. It says I’ve drawn $300 more than I have in my account.

Well, we did spend a lot on our vacation. In fact, we didn’t know exactly how much was in our bank.

What are they talking about?

A.             they spent three hundred dollars on their vacation.

B.             They drew money than they should have from the bank.

C.             They lost their bankbook.

D.             They had only three hundred dollars in the bank.

 

Take a seat, Mr. Brown. Could you tell me which position you think most appeals to you?

Well, as for me, I prefer to take the post of sales manager if you think I’m qualified.

What’s the man’s purpose in meeting the woman?

A.             To find out her position in the company.

B.             To apply for a job.

C.             To offer her position in the company.

D.             To make an appointment with the sales manager.

 

How did you do on the maths exam, john?

I barely made it. It was just a passing score but better than I had expected.

What do we learn from the conversation?

A.             John didn’t pass, although he had tried his best.

B.             John did better than he thought he was able to do.

C.             John got an excellent score, which was unexpected.

D.             John was disappointed at his maths score.

 

I thought Tom said he got A’s in all his tests.

Mary, you should know better than to take Tom’s words too seriously.

What does the man imply?

A.             Tom is very responsible.

B.             What Tom said is true.

C.             Tom’s words aren’t reliable.

D.             Tom is not humorous at all.

 

4.             条件句

1.             真实条件句

这种句式在对话中通常以“if…”; “I wonder if…”; “would you mind if…”? 等几种形式出现,表示可能性或一种请求。

I wonder whether it would be possible to change this double rooms.

Sorry, sir. All the single rooms are occupied. But if you like, I can check with Imperial Hotel to see if they have any.

What’s the woman going to do for the man?

A.             Try to help him find rooms in another hotel.

B.             Check to see if there are any vacancies in her hotel.

C.             Let him move to a room with two single beds.

D.             Show him the way to Imperial Hotel.

 

Was Robert elected to the committee?

Yes. In fact he was made chairman. But he only agreed to take the job if they let him have the final say.

What does Robert intend to do?

A.             To do whatever the committee asks him to.

B.             To make decisions in agreement with the committee.

C.             To run the committee his way.

D.             To make himself the committee chairman.

 

Hey! If you can’t enjoy that at a sensible volume, please use earphones. I’m trying study.

On! I’m sorry. I didn’t realize it was bothering you.

What is the man probably doing?

A.             Singing loudly.

B.             Listening to music.

C.             Studying.

D.             Talking on the phone.

 

Do you want to turn on the air conditioner or open the window?

I love fresh air if you don’t mind.

What can be inferred from the woman’s answer?

A.             She’d like to have the windows open.

B.             She likes to have the air conditioner on

C.             The air is heavily polluted.

D.             The windows se already open.

 

2.             虚拟条件句

表示所说的话只是一种主关的愿望,假想和建议等,真实情况可能正好相反,这是听力考试中的一个难点,考生要掌握虚拟语气谓语部分的几种情况。此外,以下几种在口语中也经常使用:

“could have done”  “should have done”    “must have done”

 Examples: I hope I won’t oversleep. I’ve simply got to catch the first flight to New York.

          If I were you, I’d request the wake-up call from the hotel reception.

What does the woman advise the man to do?

A. To cancel his trip.      B. To go to bed early.

c. To catch a later flight.    D. To ask for a wake-up call.

I’m sorry I missed the football game, but I had a terrible cold.

You didn’t miss anything. We couldn’t have played worse.

What does the woman imply?

A.         She’ never watched a better game.

B.         Football is her favorite pastime.

C.         The game has been canceled.

D.         Their team played very badly.

 

Jane, what would you do if you were on vacation overseas and lost all your money and credit cards?

Well, I guess I’d probably sell my watch and camera… or I might get a job as a waitress somewhere till I made enough money to buy a plane ticket to return home.

What are they talking about?

A.             An invented story.

B.             A real life experience.

C.             An imaginary situation

D.             A terrible nightmare.

 

I’m really exhausted. But I don’t want to miss the film that comes on at 11.

If I were you, I’d skip it. We both have to get up early tomorrow. And anyway, I’ve heard it isn’t that exciting.

What does the woman mean?

A.             The man should stay up and watch the program.

B.             The man should read something exciting instead.

C.             The man should go to bed at eleven.

D.             The man should give up watching the movie.

 

5.             并列连句

连词是虚词,在句中不单独作句子成分,一般不重读。并列连词是用以连接并列的单词,短语,从句或分句的,如:and, or, but, for, so等等, 其中, 听力考试的对话部分,考生需特别注意but一词的意义和用法,该词表示前后意义转折,其后的部分往往是该题的答案所在。

Examples: Why don’t you come to our house for dinner some time next week?

I’d like to, but we have visitors from Finland, perhaps next week.

Why can’t the woman accept the man’s invitation?

A.             She is going to Finland.

B.             She has visitors next week.

C.             She has guests at her home.

D.             She has just visited him last week.

 

I’m out of coins for the slot machine. Do you have any?

I don’t have any either. But I’ll get some from the café.

What does the man offer to do?

A.             Get some coins at the café.

B.             Buy her a cup of coffee at the café.

C.             Get some coffee from the machine.

D.             Try to fix the machine.

 

Could you help me, sir? My flight got in 15 minutes ago. Everyone else has picked up the luggage but mine hasn’t come through.

I’m sorry, Madame, but I’ll go and find out if there is any more to come.

What’s the woman’s problem?

A.             Someone has taken her luggage.

B.             Her flight is 50 minutes late.

C.             Her luggage has been delayed.

D.             She can’t find the man she’s been waiting for.

 

When I go on a diet, I eat only fruit, and that takes off weight quickly.

I prefer to eat whatever I want, and then run regularly to lose weight.

How does the man control his weight?

A.             By going on a diet.

B.             By having fewer meals.

C.             By doing physical exercise.

D.             By eating fruit and vegetables.

 

John, can you tell me what in the book interested you most?

Well, nothing specific, but I like it overall.

What did the man think of the book?

A.             He enjoyed it as a whole.

B.             He didn’t think much of it.

C.             He didn’t like it at all.

D.             He liked some parts of it.

 

How do you like the car I just bought?

Well, it seems to run well, but I think it needs a new paint job.

What does the man think of the car?

A.             It looks quite new.

B.             It needs to be repaired.

C.             It looks old, but it runs well.

D.             Its engine needs to be painted.

 

6.             非谓语动词与情态动词

1.      非谓语动词

1.             动名词

很多动词要求后面接动名词作宾语,但在听力考试的对话部分,考生应该重点掌握常见的用动名词的结构,如:like doing sth, be good at doing sth, don’t mind doing 等等,这些结构常用来描述个人特点,喜好,工作特长等.

Examples:

I haven’t had much exercise lately. My only recreation has been watching TV or going to the movies. What do you do for recreation?

In summer I like playing tennis instead of swimming and boating, and my favorite sport in the winter is skating.

What is the man’s favorite sport in summer?

A. Swimming     B. Playing tennis.    C. Boating.    D. Playing table tennis.

 I’m very impressed by all the work you’ve done on your house, Mr. Miller, how long have you been working on it?

I first became interested in doing things myself several years ago. I’ve been doing something on it every now and then for almost a year now. You know, I couldn’t afford to pay workmen to do it.

What do we learn about Mr. Miller?

A.             He used to be a workman himself.

B.             He likes to do repairs and make things himself.

C.             He is professional builder.

D.             He paid workmen to decorate the house.

 

2.不定式

在不定式的几大功用中,听力考题的对话部分经常涉及到其中的俩项功能: 作状语和定语. 不定式作状语可以表示目的,结果等,如:

I stayed there to see what would happen.

不定式作定语,表示修饰,与其所修饰的名词或代词可能是主谓关系,如:

The next train to arrive was from New York.

也可能是动宾关系,如:

I have nothing to say on this question.

Examples: can you show me how to use this, John?

         It is fully automatic. All you have to do is focus on the scene and press the button here.

         What are they talking about?

A.         How to use a camera.

B.         How to use a washer.

C.         How to use a keyboard.

D.         How to use a tape recorder.

 

Jame, I am having difficulty with all the theoretic stuff we are getting in our computer course.

Oh, that part I understand. What I can’t figure out is how to make it work in our program.

What’s the man’s problem?

A.             His computer doesn’t work well.

B.             He isn’t getting along with his staff.

C.             He didn’t register for a proper course.

D.             He can’t apply the theory to his program.

 

2. 情态动词

情态动词, 如can, may, might, have to, must, need, had better, ought to, shall, should 等在日常对话中表示可能,意愿,建议,要求,请求,命令等意义.

Examples: excuse me, Madame, could I leave this here for a few hours, please?

         Well, it’s a bit….er….unusual, isn’t it? Why not go to the left-luggage office over there?

 What does the man ask the woman to do?

A.             Help him to carry some luggage.

B.             Get some travel information.

C.             Tell him the way to the left-luggage office.

D.             Look after something for him.

 

Friday’s speaker is supposed to be wonderful. Are you going to attend the seminar on that day?

Yes. But I haven’t been able to get the ticket yet. Since the lecture is open to the public, I imagine that the tickets may have already been sold out.

Why is the man afraid he won’t be able to attend the seminar?

A.             He thinks that there won’t be enough sets for everybody.

B.             He thinks that the speaker won’t show up.

C.             He thinks the seminar won’t be open to the public.

D.             He thinks that there might not be any more tickets available.

This machine has so many buttons. I can’t figure out which one makes it run.

You’d better read the instructions first. Pressing the buttons randomly may cause the machine to break down.

According to the woman, what shall the man do first?

A.             Read the operation manual.

B.             Try the buttons one by one.

C.             Ask the shop assistant for advice.

D.             Make the machine run slowly.

 

If you are in hurry, you can take the subway. If you want to go sightseeing, take a bus.

Actually, I don’t have to be at the conference before noon.

What will the woman probably do?

A.             Hurry to the conference.

B.             Skip the conference.

C.             Take the subway.

D.             Take a bus.

 

My chemistry project is in trouble. My partner and I have totally different ideas about how to proceed.

You should try to meet each other halfway.

What does the woman suggest?

A.             The man should work with somebody else.

B.             The man should meet his partner’s needs.

C.             They should come to a compromise.

D.             They should find a better lab for the project.

 

I’m trying to find out how this dishwasher works, the manual is in French, I can’t wait for Bill to translate it for me.

Don’t worry, Mary, I can do the dishes before the machine starts to work.

What does the man mean?

A.             He will tell Mary how to operate the dishwasher.

B.             He will wash the dishes himself instead.

C.             He will help Bill to translate the manual.

D.             He himself will operate the dishwasher.

 

 7. 特殊句式

口语交谈中有些特殊句型结构也是经常用到的, 这些句型短小,但具有一定的交际功能,不可忽视.

1.             why not do….?

表示提建议或邀请, 如:

Why not see a doctor?

Why not come and have tea with me?

 

2.             简短回答So do I. / Neither do I.

表示对方所说的情况也适用或不适用自己,可以用以上简短回答形式,如:

I like traveling.

So do I.

My husband doesn’t smoke.

Neither do I.

 

3.             强调句

强调句的基本结构是it is/was….that…., 其中被强调的部分往往是考试重点,所以,考生一定要注意听it is/was 之后的部分.

如: It is at this town that I spent my childhood.

 

4.             used to

结构用于谈论个人的经历,回忆过去或者过去常做某事, 而现在不做了, 如:

 He used to travel a lot.

We used to sit under the big tree for hours, talking and laughing.

 

Some examples: Your room is a mess. When is the last time you tidied your room?

              It was when Linda came over. She has been so helpful that I simply can’t do without her.

What does the man mean?

A.             He hasn’t cleaned his room since Linda visited him.

B.             Linda is the only person who ever comes to see him.

C.             He’s been too busy to clean his room.

D.             Cleaning is the last thing he wants to do.

 

We mean to let everyone know about the charity concert, but we don’t have enough money for advertising.

How about using the school radio station?

They broadcast free public-service announcement.

What does the man suggest they do?

A.             Announce appeals for public service.

B.             Hold a charity concert to raise money.

C.             Ask the school radio station for help.

D.             Pool money to fund the radio station.

 

This is hopeless, these figures still don’t add up right, let’s do the calculations over again.

Yes, but why not do them tomorrow? It’s very late now.

What does the woman suggest they do?

A.             Check the figures later today.

B.             Bring a calculator tomorrow.

C.             Do the calculation again tomorrow.

D.             Calculate the number right now. 

 

 

短文中的语法

             i.              考题特点

短文中的考题主要涉及到以下俩方面

a)             考查考生对文章主要内容的理解,从宏观上把握主旨。一般会出现这样提出问题:

What is the speaker talking about?

What’s the passage mainly about?

What does the passage tell us about…?

What’s the topic discussed in this passage?

What do we learn from the passage about…?

 

b)             考查考生对文中某个具体细节的理解。这类考题有相当一部分可以直接从原文中找到答案,属于信息再现;但也有相当一部分考查文章细节的考题要求学生只有在分析理解长难句的基础上才能找到答案,这无疑对考生提出了更高的要求。

 

复合式听写中的语法

a)             考题特点

a)             实词

实词主要包括名词,代词,动词,形容词,副词,数词等六大词类,复合式听写每次考查7个实词,要求学生用所听到的词填空。

b)             长句

这类考题除考察7个实词外,还要求学生填入所缺的句子,共3句,包括简单,并列和复合句。一般来说,此部分主要体现观点态度的主题句以及文章最后俩句。

c)             答题技巧

通过真题分析,可发现所填的词语多为实词。经常考查的是名词,其次是动词,形容词和副词。

名词表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称,在句中或句首作主语,宾语,表语,宾(主)语补足语等。名词通常接在形容词,数词,动词,介词(短语)后。

… and consuming energy through the intricate mechanism of your body in order to remain in energy balance.

Mr. Clinton will ask congress this coming week for nearly three billion dollars to fund a five-year program called “American Reads”. The program would fund the coordination efforts of 20 thousand reading specialists and it would also give grants to help parents help children read by the third grade, or about age eight. During his Saturday radio address the president explained why the program is important.

动词是表示动作或状态的词,动词在句中主要作谓语。此外,考生还需注意使用非谓语动词的情况。

President Clinton later today joins former presidents Ford, Carter and Bush at “the president’s summit for America’s future” aimed at recruiting one million volunteer tutors to provide after school…

To maintain a given body weight, your energy input must balance your energy output.

…and your normal body weight will either fall or increase.

形容词是用来修饰名词,表示名词属性的词,在句中主要作表语,定语和宾语(主

)语补足语。多位于名词前,副词,系动词后。

President Clinton later today joins former presidents Ford, Carter and Bush at “the president’s summit for America’s future”

However, sometimes the overall energy balance is upset and your normal body weight will either fall or increase.

副词是放在动词后,形容词和其他副词前,起修饰作用,它常用来说明时间,地点,程度,方式等,在句中主要作状语。

As an adult, you may consume over a ton of food per year and still not gain or lose a pound of body weight. You are constantly harnessing, and consuming energy through the…

 

b)             长句填空的答题技巧

听写长句的特点是多为简单长句(既带分词短语,不定式,介词短语的简单句)和主从复合句。

They are likely to drop out of school, and less likely to succeed in life.||他们是有可能辍学的, 和较不有可能的在~中成功生活。

 

The program, initiated by president Clinton, has come under criticism by Congress.||被克林顿董事长被开始的计画,在国会的批评之下有来。

 

It can be influenced by a variety of factors, including how much we weigh, or how that weight is distributed.||它能被多种因素影响, 包括我们多重,或重量如何被分配。

 

The primary cause of this concern is the value that American society in general assigns to physical appearance.||关心的主要因素是价值美国的社会大体上对实际的外表分配。

 

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